Stanturf2014: To restore 2 billion hectares of forest

Stanturf and co-workers have written a review article about restoring 2 billion hectares of forest over the world. They categorize four different types of restauration:

  • Rehabilitation which restores the wanted species composition in a degraded forest ecosystem,
  • Reconstruction, which re-introduces the natural vegetation to land that had been used for other purposes, such as agriculture,
  • Reclamation which restores grounds that have been severely degraded, for instance due to mining and
  • Replacement which indicates that one helps species to move to habitats that may become suitable upon climate change, for instance northward.

Authors are careful to point out that social aspects need to be taken into account. Read the whole article in Forest Ecology and Management.

Clark2016: Today’s climate policy will be felt for millennia

Clark and co-workers have put the climatic changes over the last 250 years in a perspective stretching over ice-ages and find that heating is roughly 50 times faster than normal. They argue that the effects of the climate policy we are implementing now (or not) will be felt under at least 10 000 years. Read the whole article in Nature Climate Change.

Smil2011: To harvest Planet Earth

Smil describes how man takes what Earth has to offer. The combined people on the planet now weigh 10 times as much as all other mammals combined – and we need food. By deforestation, draining mires and so on, the amount of living plant mass has been reduced by 45%, one third of which happened in the 21st century. There are ways to reduce the pressure on natural resources though. Read the whole paper in Population Development Research.

Luyssaert2010: Europe’s carbon balance – forests

Luyssaert and co-workers estimate the balance between carbon sequestration and carbon removal from Europe’s forests between 1990 and 2005. The net result is that forests have stored carbon, because primary production was larger than the combined effect of harvest and forest fires. Read the whole article in Global Change Biology or find a pdf here.

Ceballos2015: The sixth mass-extinction is here

Ceballos and co-workers list the known extinctions of higher animals since 1500, and conclude that the extinction rate is up to 100 times faster than the background level. The authors do not mention that most of these species were found on islands, which made them more vulnerable to invasive species like rats, and that not many continental species became extinct. Read the whole article in Science Advances.

Lundmark2016: Comparison of carbon flows under different forestry management regimes

Lundmark and co-workers model the effect of clear-cut forestry and continuous cover forestry on carbon balance. The paper presupposes that production under both systems is identical, but also that harvest amounts are identical. As a result, the carbon balance does not show major differences between the management regimes. The article neglects the fact that in practice in clear-cut forestry most residue is taken out of the forest as well, changing the carbon balance. In addition, extra respiration from the soil after clear-cutting is disregarded (or at least not mentioned) in the article. Read it in Ambio.

SkS2014: Swedish Statistical Yearbook of Forestry 2014

The Swedish Forest Agency has published yearly overviews of the state of forestry since 1940. The 2014 rapport is available for download here, containing summaries of every chapter in English.

GFC2015: Bioenergy should not be classed as renewable

The Global Forest Coalition has written a brief document arguing that bioenergy should not be regarded as renewable in the EU. Download the report.

GFC2014: Dirty renewable energy from land-grabbing

Should we displace people in developing countries from their land in order to satisfy our demand for renewable energy? The Global Forest Coalition certainly does not think so and has produced a report on this topic.

Norden2013: Biodiversity, carbon storage and dynamics of old northern forests

A report commissioned by the Nordic Council of Ministers, on the biodiversity, carbon storage and dynamics of northern old-growth forests. Download the report here.