Stanturf and co-workers have written a review article about restoring 2 billion hectares of forest over the world. They categorize four different types of restauration:

  • Rehabilitation which restores the wanted species composition in a degraded forest ecosystem,
  • Reconstruction, which re-introduces the natural vegetation to land that had been used for other purposes, such as agriculture,
  • Reclamation which restores grounds that have been severely degraded, for instance due to mining and
  • Replacement which indicates that one helps species to move to habitats that may become suitable upon climate change, for instance northward.

Authors are careful to point out that social aspects need to be taken into account. Read the whole article in Forest Ecology and Management.

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